One of the most difficult tasks charged to anybody looking to start traditional shaving, is to find the perfect razor to shave with. That is because its actually impossible for you to know what to look for, before you've had a chance to really try a lot of safety razors for yourself. Some models are designed to be heavy, some light. Some models are long, and some short. Some blades cut amazingly well but are too sharp, and some are too dull, but finding the middle ground can be a task as well. So I'm going to try and make this easier on you, and give some sage advice. You can also check out this site safety razors, which I found very helpful while learning.
Single Blade Versus Double Edged
Very simple answer here, always go for a double edged razor. Why? Well, single edged razors claim to fame is that they are safer and are easier to handle, however in my experience the safety of a DE has never been a question. On the other hand, DE razors you can use twice as often, which will save a ton of money in the long run. Finally, there are just a ton more options for DE razors to purchase from, so its an easy choice.
Top Brands and Why
Parker: Parker is the brand of choice for me when it comes to razors. They are an English/Indian based company which has been around for a while, and they have a ton of products on the market, for just about any style. Their stock blades are about in the middle between dull and sharp, and their heavy duty razors are known to be the best in the industry. Heavy Duty safety razors by the way are designed to be short and heavy, the weight of the razor pushes down on the hair follicle which does the actual cutting. http://www.hellohairstyling.com/wet-shaving/best-safety-razor/
Merkur: This is another great blade, with about middle ground in terms of sharpness with their stock blades. Merkur is German based and have patented alof of products, their branch company DOVO is responsible for a series of really nice, high quality straight razors.
Feather: Feather is a Japanese based company which have developed quite a few models as well, but they aren't as popular in the States as you might expect. They have incredibly sharp blades, which I find to be too sharp(I always chaff my skin). However, you might like these.
You'll probably have to test some of these before you know for sure what appeals to you the most. However, this should give you a good guide as to what you should be aiming for depending on your own past experience using blades. My personal blade of choice is the Parker 93R. If you have any questions, shoot me an email and I'll be glad to help you find more specific models. As a final note, I'll leave you with this video of a guy who's personally tried way too many DE blades, but you may get some value out of it in helping your selection process. Also, if you want to sneak ahead and learn the next level of traditional or wet shaving, you can check out this site, which gives great info on straight razors.