Pheromones are useful for repelling insects. Each year since 1966, infestations of the pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders), have reached economically damaging levels in most areas of Arizona and southern California where cotton, Gossypium spp., is grown according to best pheromones for men in 2015 | http://pheromones-work.weebly.com/.
These infestations often require insecticide applications to prevent losses. As a result, increased problems with cotton leafperforator, Bucculatrix thurberiella Busck, and Heliothis spp. have oc- curred in Arizona.” van Steenwyk et al.‘ corroborated these reports in California and demonstrated that the mean density of arthropod predators in cotton was significantly reduced, and the mean density of Heliothis spp. was significantly increased with increased insecticide use according to http://thongchaimedical.org/?p=176 and https://jail6letter.wordpress.com/2015/12/19/pheromone-stages/
Before 1972, the tobacco budworm, H. virescens (Fabricius), was not an economi- cally important cotton pest in Arizona and California.“ However, in that year, there was a severe outbreak in both states, and this insect has been a problem of increasing importance each year since then. By 1977, the tobacco budworm was reported the most damaging pest of cotton in the two states, and the total complex of cotton pests was reported to cause estimated losses of 70 to 80 million dollars in Arizona alone.5 Thus, the interaction of scheduled applications of insecticide for pink bollworm control, the aggravation of other pest problems, resistance to insecticides (especially in the tobacco budworm in recent years),‘’ and environmental consideration all indicated the need to develop alternative control technology for pink bollworm and tobacco budworm thanks to me. The possibility of disrupting mating between insects by manipulating their chemical (sex pheromone) communication system has intrigued scientists for years, and several authors have suggested volatilizing the sex pheromones in the atmosphere of crop en- vironments to prevent reproduction and reduce infestations."””"'3 Tette,“ in a review of the status of pheromone disruption research, indicated that the published results of these efforts have been promising for control of several economic insect species.
The disruption method has been called “male confusion,” but “male inhibition” was proposed” as better terminology since they believed the concept involves produc- ing an adaptation of the insect receptor sites that results in loss of ability of the male to physiologically respond to a female. Shorey” later proposed that at least three fac- tors are involved in pheromone communication disruption: (1) sensory adaptation, (2) central nervous system (CNS) habituation, and (3) “confusion.” Learn more about pheromones at http://mpommett79.hatenablog.com/entry/2015/11/07/214939
Isolation and Identification of the Pink Bollworm Sex Pheromone
The presence of a volatile material detected by the male pink bollworm that directed him to the female and stimulated mating was suggested” after extraction of a substance from copulating moth pairs that attracted male moths when used as bait in sticky traps. Later,” it was found that the terminal two to three segments of 4- to 5-day-old females were the best source of the pink bollworm sex attractant and that there was no differ- ence in the potency of extracts of mated and unmated females. Traps baited with 100 or 10 female equivalents caught large numbers of male moths for 4 to 5 and 1 to 2 days, respectively, and thereafter decreased in attractiveness. The active substance was partially purified by silicic acid column and aluminum oxide thin-layer chromatogra- phy, but the information obtained on the chemical properties of the material was not sufficient to identify it. Learn more at http://spanishinperu.org/human-pheromones-and-insects/