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nicolascas

nicolascas   , 39

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Pheromones Are Powerful

Pheromones are powerful in pest control. Published accounts indicate that the oriental fruit moth (OFM). (irapholim ( : Cy- dia) molesta (Busck), attacks practically all orchard fruit trees: the larvae damage twigs and/or the fruit. Eddy et al.' reported a preference of the larvae for the fruit of peach and quince, but because peach is more widely distributed, the insect injures more of this fruit. The damage done to the twigs by larvae mainly in the early part of the season, may interfere seriously with the growth of young trees and cause them to have a stunted bushy appearance. Injury to the fruit is somewhat similar to that caused by larvae of the plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst). Learn more at http://thongchaimedical.org/?p=179

The OFM occurs in most pheromone-producing areas, and its importance varies with locality and from season to season. At present, control is achieved through prescheduled applications of insecticides. However, experience has shown that resistance of pests to chemicals is a very real threat to control programs that rely solely on insecticides.’ Alternative means of control are therefore being sought due to pheromone attraction. Learn more at http://pheromones-work.weebly.com/home/learn-about-pheromones-for-women

Life history studies show that the average time required for OFM to complete an entire life cycle ranges from 24.5 to 40.5 days; the number of generations a year ranges from three in the New England states to six or more in south-central Georgia.’ Duston‘ and Duston and Armstrong5 reported that adult OFM are most active in orchards from 3 hr before to 1 hr after sunset, and that the main daily mating period coincides with the daily flight and oviposition period thanks to pheromones thanks to me.

George“ originally demonstrated the presence of a pheromone in OFM females, and he carried out bioassays in the laboratory with crude extracts of the natural material. Roelofs et al.’ reported that the sex pheromone that lures the male OFM to the female is (Z)—8-dodecenyl acetate and, subsequently,‘ that attraction to this lure is enhanced by the addition of a four— to tenfold quantity of a synergist, dodecyl alcohol. Subse- quently, Beroza et al.°~‘° demonstrated a requirement for the E-isomer in the OFM pheromone for maximum attraction and showed that the optimum isomer content was approximately 93 "70 (Z)- and 7% (E)-dodecenyl acetate thanks to http://pheromones-planet.com/pherazone/.

Gentry et al.“'” used the synthesized sex pheromone of the OFM, called orfralure, to monitor populations in Georgia and examined the possibility of control by air-per- meation, mating-disruption. Rothschild” conducted field trials in Australia where he investigated disruption of mating (and control) of the Oriental fruit moth, by release of the synthetic sex pheromone in commercial peach orchards. His results showed that shoot and fruit damage in orchards where pheromone was released at a rate exceeding 6 mg/ha/hr was significantly lower than damage in orchards receiving a full seasonal schedule of insecticide applications. Cardé et al.“ were able to completely disrupt at- traction of the insect to both orfralure and virgin females by treating an apple orchard with orfralure evaporated from hollow fiber dispensers. Learn about Max Attraction Gold at http://youthbruce.com/2016/05/03/does-max-attraction-gold-work/

II. EXPERIMENTAL

Air-permeation experiments were begun in Georgia in 1973 and have continued through 1979 to determine whether trap catches of OFM could be reduced through applications of orfralure. 

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